I ____________hereby notify that the following research is completed through my personal efforts and none of the part of this paper is copied from any external sources or plagiarised. This research has been deliberated through the method of in-depth exploration and assessment of the relevant cases that encompass the effect of the ITM on the conduct of SMEs in improving their performance
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my professor -------, at -------University, for their continuous supervision & guidance from the scratch and I appreciatively express our gratitude towards them for enriching me in the direction of our Examination with their prosperous knowledge and presentation.
Information technology is considered as the significant concept of organisations because it has direct impact on their performance. It is important for the companies to manage use of information technology viably so that expected outcomes are achieved. Information technology management is imperative for the development and sustainability of SMEs As of late, many creators have underlined on the need to contribute on modern IT to improve authoritative information preparing ability and in this way execution. The recounted contention is the utilisation of cutting edge IT prompts more accessible information, and in this way prompts expanded information availability to bolster choice makings. Firms with broad IT asset may pick up an aggressive edge by conveying them in support of or to fortify their business. Although significant accentuation has been set on potential advantages of IT applications to authoritative execution, comes about because of a few exact reviews report irrelevant connections between IT refinement and execution. It is contended that utilization of various measures of IT modernity makes it hard to make examinations between studies especially its effect on execution. Different specialists required a more roundabout way to deal with measure the connection amongst IT and execution. For the purpose of this research study, primary data collection has been utilized for collecting the data. Questionnaire has been sued for collecting the responses of the participants. Descriptive statistics has been used for the depicting the result. The study concluded that information technology management plays significant role in the enhancing the performance of SMEs.
Information technology is considered as the significant concept of organisations because it has a direct impact on their performance. It is important for the companies to manage the use of information technology viably so that expected outcomes are achieved. Information technology management is imperative for the development and sustainability of SMEs. It is noticed that use of information technology is equally significant for the SMEs as it is for large organisations. Many of the businesses are investing in information technology management because it helps them in dealing with the complexities of the market and in achieving competitive advantage. In Dubai, the SMEs form 95% of the total business population and offer a significant number of jobs for the population. The development in the technology is taking place rapidly in the business arena and is also used in order to gain competitive advantage. This makes it necessary for the SMEs to understand the importance and role of information technology management. This paper evaluates this perspective in the SMEs operating in the UAE.
Information technology (IT) in the global society is considered as a powerful source for ensuring business success due to which it is considered as the important concept for the organisations. Information technology is considered as a common term that refers to technology that assists organisations in manipulating, producing, storing, disseminating, and communicating information. This demonstrates the fact that information technology is becoming an important concept for the organisations that help them in using and managing information for ensuring effectiveness of the business performance. With the help of IT, SME’s can improve their performance in terms of quality, cost, and time.
Akhavan et al. (2009) stated that information technology management (ITM) is highly essential for the growth and survival of the business. It serves as the integral part of the growth, success, and business sustainability. Houy et al (2010) highlighted that although economic downturn took place in 2008; the spending on information technology increased by 4.6% and reached $3.4 trillion in 2010 as compared to 2009. The investments were made due to the fact that information technology assists organisations in dealing with complexities of the market and in gaining competitive advantage. This demonstrates the fact that ITM is the important term for the organisations such as SMEs because it helps them in improving their overall performance and in ensuring growth of the business. Therefore, ITM is regarded as the significant concept that can be focused by the SMEs in the UAE to ensure their promotion and success in the competitive market.
The use of information technology management is important for SMEs in the same manner as it is significant for large organisations. It is noticed that SMEs in the UAE lack in the use of ITM within their business due to which they have to face some issues and troubles. Many of the SMEs in the UAE want to improve and enhance their HR capabilities, corporate governance, and innovation processes for which they need to implement information technology management. Soudani (2012) stated that information technology is a vital part and essential to sustain, grow, and support SMEs in the UAE. For this purpose, some of the organisations have made huge investments in the information technology but many of them are still unaware of the role and significance of the IT for their business. SMEs in the UAE do not know the important and use of ITM in the process of managing their processes and operations viably. Due to this, the SMEs are recommended to focus on the importance of ITM in the industry and the benefit can be achieved by them through implemented of this technique (Shah Alam, et al., 2011).
Soriano & Huarng (2013) stated that information technology is considered as the imperative aspect in terms of growth and survival of the organisation. It serves as the main part of the business because it creates integration between information and technology, both of which are important for the organisational success. It is noticed that many of the organisations have implemented the concept of IT within their business but are not able to manage it effectively. In order to control this aspect, the concept of information technology management has been introduced so that it is used to ensure the growth and success of the organisation. Without the implementation of ITM techniques and approaches, the SMEs cannot ensure their growth and success because it is the means of providing accurate and viable assistance to the individuals. This demonstrates the fact that concept of information technology management is the imperative concern for the SMEs (Soriano & Huarng, 2013).
SMEs in the UAE are not aware of the importance and role of ITM within their business due to which they are not able to grow and progress. Many of the SMEs in UAE are not growing because they are not able to integrate their operations with the latest and advance technologies. The ITM helps the organisation in managing their resources so that needs and priorities can be emphasised ultimately contributing in the achievement of goals. Therefore, the organisations need to make sure that they are implementing information technology management within their business practice so that their growth and survival is ensured. Furthermore, with the help of this technique, the SMEs in UAE would become effective in managing all their work and resources effectively which is the significant contribution in the growth and survival of the organisation. Hence, the focus of the SMEs must be diverted towards the use of ITM as it is the effective method to ensure success of the organisation (Elbeltagi, et al., 2013).
Different research has been performed on the aspect of analysing the impact of information technology (IT) on the organisational performance. It is noticed that SMEs form the larger part of the business community in the UAE but they are not aware of the importance of information technology with respect to organisational performance. Moreover, the SMEs in UAE also do not have the concept of information technology management (ITM) in the process of influencing organisational performance. They are not making use of this technique within their business practices due to which survival and growth rate of the SMEs in UAE is slow. Therefore, this research study is an effort to determine the impact of the information technology management on the performance SMEs operating in the UAE.
The aim of the research study is to evaluate the impact of information technology management (ITM) on the organisational performance of SMEs in the UAE.
The objectives that are used for completing this research study are as follows:
• To evaluate the importance of information technology management in SMEs of the UAE
• To determine the level of utilisation of information technology management practices in SMEs in the UAE
• To analyse the influence of information technology management (ITM) on SMEs of the UAE
The research questions which are used for completing the research study are as follows:
• How important is the information technology management (ITM) in SMEs working in the UAE?
• What is the level of the utilisation of information technology management (ITM) practices in SMEs of the UAE?
• What is the influence of information technology management (ITM) on SMEs of the UAE?
The two main variables are focused in the research study, which are defined as follows:
Information technology management (ITM) is the discipline in which all the information technology resources of an organisation are managed with respect to priorities and needs.
Organisational performance is the demonstration of actual result or output of the organisation which is measured in terms of goals or objectives. It determines the effectiveness of the business in terms of revenue and profitability.
The structure that is followed to complete this dissertation is as follows:
This is the first chapter of the dissertation in which the research aim, objectives, and questions are given to present the basis of the study. Moreover, background of the topic, problem statement and variable definition are also the part of this section.
The aim of this chapter is to discuss the research objectives in the light of precedent researches and studies that had been conducted on the topic. It determines the gap in the literature which would be achieved through this particular research.
This is the significant chapter of the dissertation because it highlights the methods and approaches used for gathering and analysing data. It provides justification for selecting a method with respect to the research topic.
This is the fourth chapter of the study in which the gathered data is examined by using qualitative or quantitative analysis depending on the nature of the study. The results achieved from analysis are then discussed in the light of literature review.
Conclusion marks the end of dissertation in which all the main points are summarised to present an overview. It comprises of recommendation and limitations of the study which would help the future researchers.
This literature review is aimed at proving literature on the topic that is under discussion. This literature review is aimed at incorporating the researches that are available on the discussed subject matter. This literature review furthermore, provides concepts that are related to the information technology management (ITM) and the advantages that information technology management provides to the organisations.
As of late, many creators have underlined on the need to contribute on modern IT to improve authoritative information preparing ability of the organisation. The recounted argument is, the utilisation of cutting edge IT stimulates more accessible information, and in this way it enables prolonged information availability to strengthen decision making within SMEs. Organisations with broad IT asset may pick up an aggressive edge by fortifying their business or conveying them support.
Although noteworthy accentuation has been set on possible advantages of IT applications to authoritative execution, comes about because of a few exact reviews report irrelevant connections between IT refinement and execution. It is contended that utilisation of various measures of IT modernity makes it hard to make examinations between studies especially its effect on execution. Different specialists required a more roundabout way to deal with the measure the connection amongst IT and execution. Chen & Huang, (2012) contended that IT is a fundamental device, but is not possible without anyone else's input, to be genuinely powerful. Or maybe, IT should be combined with different elements, for example, a business system to affect execution. These components are frequently understood regarding classified information prerequisites. Required information would then be made available by the organisation by that put resources into more modern IT. The adequacy of IT will be unforeseen on authoritative information necessities, which is reflected by the accessibility of that information (Chen & Huang, 2012)
When all is said in done, comes about because of past reviews demonstrate that IT appropriation has developed immensely inside SMEs. Nevertheless, there is impressive validation to propose that not very many of the coming about frameworks have had a huge effect in transit administration makes choices. Talib & Rahman (2010) discovered restricted confirmation that IT is utilised to bolster basic leadership. The most common applications in SMEs are value-based in nature. Late additionally affirmed that IT in SMEs are essentially utilised for managerial and operational undertakings. Soriano & Huarng (2013) contended the key issue of the absence of vital IT utilisation in SMEs identifies with the poor fit between what the product instruments are putting forth and what is required, with neither the clients nor the providers in a solid position to speak with each other. The circumstance is significantly more critical inside SMEs as there is an absence of IT support. Regardless of these constraints, IT use in SMEs has turned out to be more modern. There is confirmation that IT makes a difference SMEs create and execute the business system. A few reviews have likewise analysed the connection between IT modernity, what's more, execution of SMEs.
Kuo & Kuo, (2010) found computerisation to be a huge indicator of the execution of little-producing firms. It is discovered SMEs with refined IT performed not superior to SMEs with less modern IT. In an endeavour to additionally comprehend the issue, Talib & Rahman (2010) embraced a possibility way to deal with examine the connection between IT refinement and hierarchical structure and its effect on execution. The review discovered IT administration was emphatically identified with basic modernity, and IT utilisation was decidedly identified with execution. Especially currently, Elbeltagi et al (2013)inspected the arrangement between IT system and business technique among SMEs. The review found the gatherings with high IT arrangement accomplished preferred execution over firms with low IT arrangement. For the organisations, the information technology management is amongst the core functions of organisations. The information technology management is the collection of the specialised activities and has the main focus on adding value to the organisations. Information technology plays a greater role in leveraging the practices of the organisation.
Effective and efficient management of the information technology facilitates the companies in gathering the information that is relevant to the companies and that can facilitate the companies in gaining a competitive edge in the market. Information technology management (ITM) to management the global information effectively and contributes to saving the cost of the company that occurs in operations. In making the organisations successful, a number of studies have acknowledged the importance of information technology in the success of the organisation (Al-Qirim, 2008; Aboelmaged, 2014). The way how the information is managed have a huge impact on the success of the organisation. Information technology management is therefore considered as the vital resource and can help the company to create a benchmark in the industry. The information technology management facilitates the company in managing the technology that plays a vital part in sustaining the organisational systems and operations. Effective information technology management helps the organisations in remaining ahead of the competitors and hence towards the enhanced organisational performance (Elbeltagi, et al., 2013; Houy, et al., 2010). Information technology management (ITM) supports companies in making effective decisions. This is the reason due to which companies are focusing on the application of information technology, and researchers are paying their attention towards finding the ways the information technology can be managed and can enhance the overall performance of the organisation. The role of the information technology management (ITM) in improving organisational execution Information technology management (ITM) assumes an immense part in enhancing the execution of associations (Aboelmaged, 2014; Soudani, 2012). Numerous little and medium-estimate endeavours (SMEs) saw information technology management (ITM) frameworks as instruments that are utilised to increase specific points of interest, as an apparatus that can be utilised for getting change associations, and a method for making advancements. The arrangement of the information technology management (ITM) with advancements assumes a basic part in authoritative maintainability. Information technology management (ITM) empower organisations to acquire changes procedures, structures, and other business related exercises that encourage organisations in gaining ground (Houy, et al., 2010; Akhavan, et al., 2009).
Information technology management (ITM) empowers organisations to oversee information precisely and utilise the accessible information to distinguish openings that exist in the market and have not been achieved by contenders. Information technology management (ITM) assumes an essential part in making organisations straightforward through upgrading correspondence and sharing learning. Learning and information are the variables that empower organisations to keep up their intensity against their rivals and the information technology management (ITM) frameworks encourage these two components and in this manner lead organisations towards upgrading their performance (Ojala & Tyrväinen, 2009; Soudani, 2012). Information technology management (ITM) assumes a huge part in authoritative execution by being a fundamental piece of vital arranging process. Information technology (IT) through key arrangement just not enhances the clients' administration but rather helps in boosting the organisations' execution (Ojala & Tyrväinen, 2009; Aboelmaged, 2014).
Information technology management (ITM) impacts the saving money part when contrasted with the assembling segment. In the administration segment, the nearby organisations are ahead framed multinational organisations in term of embracing and using information technology management (ITM) rehearses. Be that as it may, in the assembling division, multinational organisations are leading the pack in such manner. Chen & Huang (2012) surveyed the relationship between the information technology management (ITM) practices and learning management. The exploration considered the information technology applications as free factor and store network execution as the needy variable. The aftereffects of the examination unveiled that the information technology applications if oversaw viably are decidedly connected with authoritative execution through emphatically influencing production network execution (Shah Alam, et al., 2011; Aboelmaged, 2014).
Akhavan et al (2009) evaluated the attack of learning management and its impact on the execution of organisations. They distinguished that a powerful information technology management (ITM) encourages viable learning management (KM) rehearses that lead organisation towards great authoritative execution. The consequences of the exploration revealed that a powerful use of information technology helps organisations in executing learning management rehearses that decidedly influences the authoritative execution. In any case, it has been understood that the information technology management (ITM) must be incorporated into HRM systems for accomplishing the hierarchical execution. The results said that the arrangement of information technology management (ITM) with HRM methodology and learning management (KM) system fundamentally influences business execution.
Information technology is a zone of overseeing and utilising technology into generation exercises of an association keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish high profitability. The part of information technology can't be out aside since it adds to monetary exercises through an increment in total efficiency which will bring about change on financial development and improvement. IT is the bedrock for the association and national survival and advancement on a quickly changing worldwide condition (Ojala & Tyrväinen, 2009; Shah Alam, et al., 2011). Al-Ansari et al (2013) expressed that IT is a mind boggling and heterogeneous arrangement of merchandise, application and administrations used to create, circulate, handle and change information. The need for a national information technology strategy turned out to be more evident after the cooperation of the SMEs in UAE. IT is dependable to HR and foundation which constitute the crucial devices and methods for evaluating, arranging, overseeing advancement and for accomplishing supportable monetary exercises and development. Innovative advancement has changed the greater part of riches making work from physical exertion based to information exertion based and empowers producing association to know the estimation of IT to their organisations by offering business openings over rivals in the market.
For an assembling association to make due in the worldwide rivalry or market, the association must enhance and procure IT abilities in the generation forms in order to accomplish high rate and change on workers‟ efficiency. Profitability is a measure of the effectiveness of creation. Utilising IT into generation exercises will improve increment in workers‟ and monetary profitability, the upward move of total financial efficiency will prompt increment in total national output and fare of a country (Elbeltagi, et al., 2013; Kuo & Kuo, 2010). The increment in labour profitability every hour worked is the key measure of good usage of financial assets by assembling organisations which empower maintainable wage, a way of life and utilisation in a company. Aboelmaged (2014) noticed that expanding utilisation of IT per specialist hour, expanded yield every hour enormously. Producing firms that embrace IT gadgets have possessed the capacity to recognized distinctive arrangement of issues militating against utilisation of IT, the issues are separating and mal-working of gear and machine, poor attention to IT application, deficient power supply, gigantic add up to be contributed, absence of specialized admonitory administrations, poor access to information on crude materials and so on once amusing to contribute on IT, absence of specialized counselling administration, poor access to information a crude materials and so forth (Al-Ansari, et al., 2013; Aboelmaged, 2014).
Fabricating organisations in SMEs ought to utilise IT in their generation arranges keeping in mind the end goal to build workers‟ and association profitability and returns of the organisations. In spite of the positive commitment of IT to financial profitability and advancement, SMEs like SMEs is as yet falling behind in utilising IT underway exercises. SMEs is confronted with colossal issues of IT which had kept on losing jump SMEs economy subsequently of difficulties regarding building IT identified with generation capacities. It is obvious that SMEs economy needs advancement, limits and capacities in IT management, these have come about too low monetary efficiency and execution in SMEs in general (Akhavan, et al., 2009; Elbeltagi, et al., 2013). As likewise set by Houy et al (2010) that SMEs need correlative resources important keeping in mind the end goal to profit by the result of IT speculations, for example, the required framework and the information base which is fundamental to bolster the powerful utilisation of IT. SMEs performance is dependent upon the work escalated that is utilising more HR than capital assets (venture). An economy that is under or ideal populated will utilise a greater amount of capital assets than HR, however in a nation that is over populated, if capital assets are utilised as a part of the generation forms than HR such economy will experience a high rate of unemployment and criminal act. SMEs government ought to be at the equivalent use of both capitals and work escalated, in order to avoid high unemployment rate (Talib & Rahman, 2010; Soriano & Huarng, 2013).
The association condition decides profit of IT for generation exercises of a firm, any assembling organisations that confronted the issue of poor familiarity with IT application, insufficient power supply, low compensation, the absence of acknowledgement, deficient staff preparing, the absence of mechanical support and overseeing won't ideally accomplished IT returns (Al-Ansari, et al., 2013). Aboelmaged, (2014) noticed that old style associations are portrayed by huge organisations, inflexible and incorporated pecking orders where choice made by senior directors are fell down to individuals underneath. These organisations have, by and large, created much lower comes back to IT than more natural adaptable firms with compliment pecking orders, less concentrated control and more self-sufficiency for lower level workers, i.e. management structure and style could likewise be an issue to profitability. Akhavan et al (2009) likewise, specified that there are different components that incapable an association to accomplish higher efficiency come back from IT use like old style management structure and framework in which choices are unified, working condition and incompetent or uneducated work.
Al-Ansari et al (2013) demonstrate that SMEs need correlative assets vital to profit by the result of IT Investments, for example, the required foundation and the information base which is basic to bolster the successful utilisation of IT. The primary motivation behind the review is to assess the effect of IT application (venture) in assembling part on work and hierarchical profitability in SMEs. In particular, the review will decide if working condition impact utilisation of IT by SMEs in the assembling firms and in addition assessing whether management structure and style influence efficiency come back from IT use in the assembling division. They additionally called attention to that IT can assume an essential part in realising manageable financial advancement. Specialised abilities connect with different variables of creation to guarantee that assets accessible to the assembling undertaking are proficiently and gainfully utilised to keep up or enhanced the organisations share of the item advertise. It is additionally expressed that interest in IT and its application in assembling exercises can goad considerable efficiency increment that would essentially enhance the execution of SMEs (Shah Alam, et al., 2011; Soudani, 2012).
Al-Qirim (2008) utilised time serves information and sectoral efficiency demonstrates frame to decide the effect of IT on work profitability in non-cultivate business. Chen & Huang (2012) likewise demonstrate that without utilising of IT today, SMEs will have genuine and add up to outcomes later on and will suggest the danger of lingering behind financially with every one of the suggestions that this involves. Work quality and IT venture to keep on providing a positive commitment to development. Kuo & Kuo (2010) show that IT generation and use is related to higher profitability development. IT mostly fortifies the presentation of hierarchical changes in assembling firms. The expansion of IT in ventures prompts a substitution of IT gear for different types of capital and work and may create generous returns for the undertakings that put resources into IT and rebuild their association. Ojala & Tyrväinen (2009)noticed that interest in technology can furnish individuals with better instruments that upgrade their efficiency and thus improve the development procedure of the SMEs.
IT speculation has not had a noteworthy positive effect on the efficiency and monetary development of the SMEs. Little and medium ventures (SMEs) assume an urgent part in financial exercises and improvement of a country. The utilisation of IT in SMEs motor monetary execution, and diminish unemployment rate, IT is having a noteworthy effect in a segment of little and medium size Enterprises (SMEs), particularly where ventures are in decay or when unemployment levels are high. Economic writing demonstrates that IT is an essential driver of profitability and development. IT has demonstrated a get development on work profitability which has expanded the monetary execution and overall income. Soriano & Huarng (2013) claims that SMEs would require top-notch IT and should dependably give unrivalled esteem item superior to anything contender, with regards to quality, cost and administration. Utilising of IT by SMEs upgrade development and empower little and medium undertakings to contend with multinational ventures. In an innovative situation venture (Multinational, and SMEs) make productively and adequately use sparing assets by creating standard technology merchandise and enterprises, change human exertion and financial assets to deliver the market needs.
The information technology transformation upgraded or gives financial development and advancement through total profitability to those countries that have admittance and capacity to utilise these innovations in the assembling areas. The transformation in IT has empowered the assembling association to accomplish higher profitability of yield by workers‟ and decidedly impacted time and space in sending and recovering of information both inside and crosswise over differing associations and nations. Soudani (2012) expressed that aggressive condition in which firm works effectively affects the profits from SMEs. IT has been appeared to assume imperative parts in accomplishing intensity among assembling organisations at different levels. Talib & Rahman (2010) additionally demonstrated that IT expertise or specialised aptitudes collaborate with different elements of generation to guarantee that assets accessible to the assembling undertaking are productively and gainfully utilised to kept up or enhanced the organisations share of the item advertise.
Shaukat and Zafarullah (2009) examined the effect of information technology (IT) on the execution of associations. For the achievement of the reason, they considered saving money and fabricating area of Pakistan. The information has been gathered for the term of 1994 to 2005. For the gathering of the essential information, inside and out meetings have been directed and from 48 organisations, field reviews have been directed from which 24 associations were from the assembling segment and 24 were from administration (managing an account) area. The results of the investigation revealed that the management of information technology has a huge positive effect on the authoritative execution. For making an inference, t-test and ANOVA test have been sent. The aftereffects of the review investigated that information technology management (ITM) affects the saving money division when contrasted with the fabricating segment. In the administration part, the neighbourhood organisations are ahead shaped multinational organisations in term of embracing and using information technology management (ITM) hones. Be that as it may, in the assembling part, multinational organisations are leading the pack in such manner.
Chen and Huang (2012) evaluated the attack of learning management and its impact on the execution of organisations. Keeping in mind the end goal to accumulate information, specialists appropriated 1100 polls from which just 181 reactions were gathered or returned, and just 173 tests were substantial. The information has gathered the information from 173 associations through research poll. They distinguished that a viable information technology management (ITM) encourages powerful information management (KM) rehearses that lead organization towards great hierarchical execution. The aftereffects of the examination revealed that a viable utilisation of information technology helps organisations in actualizing learning management hones that decidedly influences the authoritative execution. In any case, it has been understood that the information technology management (ITM) must be coordinated with HRM systems for accomplishing the hierarchical execution. The results specified that the arrangement of information technology management (ITM) with HRM technique and information management (KM) procedure altogether influences business execution.
Considering the nature of the topic the conceptual framework includes three major dependable variables that is performance, functions and operations. One dependent variable in this research study is information technology management.
Literature on the SMEs of UAE is less and therefore, more research is needed in order to conduct an in-depth analysis of the topic. There are limited studies which directly depicts the relationship between information technology management and its resultant impact on the performance of the firms. The literature also lacks the other factors that should be integrated with the ITM in order to enhance the firms performance.
The objective behind conducting a research, that is, concerned on a specific topic is to inform an action. Therefore, the research necessitates pursuing contextualising its results within the larger body of the study paper. It must always provide excellence and ample knowledge for the seeker or readers so that they are able to easily comprehend it. It is, however, impossible to bring clarity, reliability and accuracy in the researcher if the researcher is unable to adopt appropriate research methods, and data collection as well as analysing techniques. Hence, the methodology chapter in any research comes under its significant sections that provide the reader with the understanding of how the overall research has been completed.
It moreover enhances the accuracy level of the research by explaining how the work has been done at each and every level and increases its relevancy. So, in the following research, with the help of onion approach framework the researcher has identified and incorporated each layer of the research onion that includes; identifying the research philosophies, carrying out the purposes with appropriate research approaches, incorporating the accurate research method, sampling techniques, data collection methods, the instruments to be used and analysis. The profound analysis of the research method is explained as follows.
Research philosophy is explained to be the identification of the research settings, information and its nature. It is the adoption of techniques under which the information associated with a phenomenon is collected, analysed and utilised (Scandura & Williams, 2000). There are four types of research philosophies which necessitate the researcher to identify one of the philosophies under which their research would fall. These philosophies include; Positivism, Interpretivism, pragmatism, and realism.
With this understanding, it is concluded that the following research is based on the positivism philosophy in order to provide the results through personal experiments and assessments.
While conducting a research it is vital to choose an appropriate method of data collection in order to increase the authenticity of the research. So, there are two main approaches that are used by the researcher to complete the investigation. The first approach is deductive that based on creating hypothesis with the evaluation of empirical theories. Moreover, it is based on abstracting conclusions from facts or propositions. It is also understood that the deductive approach is based on rationality (Khan, 2011; Kuada, 2012).
Contrasting to this is the approach of inductive where the results are deliberated through the explanations and understanding of the theories studied for the research. It moreover encompasses the examination for strategy from consideration and the development of rationalisations – philosophies – for those strategies through the list of assumptions. No concepts or assumptions would relate to inductive investigations on the preliminary phases of the exploration and the investigator is permitted to alter the progress of the investigation after the research practice is initiated (Kumar & Phrommathed, 2005). Thus, this research has incorporated deductive approach to assist in examining various factors that impact research variables.
There are two main types of research methods which are used by researchers to collect appropriate data according to the purpose of the research.
Quantitative research measures quantity or amount in a particular research. It is valid to occurrences that can be articulated in expressions of quantity. Quantitative research is largely linked to positivist/postpositivist model. It frequently encompasses the collection and the conversion of data into statistical procedure so that the results are achieved in a numerical manner. The process of data collection, moreover, relies on numerous methods that are contended on strict processes and organised for statistical examination. The foremost prominence of quantitative research is on deductive rationality that highly inclines to transfer from the broad-spectrum to the precise manner. This is frequently denoted as a top-down methodology. The rationality of assumptions is presented to be dependent on various evidence (Kothari, 2004)
Qualitative research, however, is apprehensive on the qualitative occurrence, that is, phenomena concerning to or encompassing feature, eminence or kind. It is the research method that is the frequently related to the social constructivist model which highlights the communally created nature of truth. It is related to the gathering, examining and endeavouring process to discover the profound significance and meaning of human beliefs and experience, comprising inconsistent or conflicting opinions, behaviours and feelings (Hennink, et al., 2010). Researchers, however, deliberate on achieving an in-depth, detail and complex comprehension of human experiences instead of merely focusing on achieving data that can be comprehensive to other larger clusters (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2006; Bhattacharyya, 2006). This method of approach does not require generating hypothesis like quantitative method. The process of data collection is based on the analysis in textual format. The instrument of data collection includes open-ended questionnaires, observations and in-depth interviews to understand the views of people. Thus, the following research has used the quantitative method to attain numeric results, which will be easily measured and thus provide reliability in the result (Newman & Benz, 1998).
The data collection is the action of acquiring information that is relevant to answering the research questions. It is the effort of researcher towards attaining data through two major methods that include primary and secondary data collection methods.
Primary data is the method through which the information relating to a particular study is collected by the researchers themselves. These data are original and not used for any other research previously. Thus primary data collection assists the researcher in illustrating new assumptions as the data is established on the basis of prevalent settings. The analysis of such data is completed through statistical tools and it provides the results in a numerical manner that is later interpreted and analysed by the researcher to provide conclusions. There are various methods of primary data collection including; surveys, close-ended questionnaires, personal observations, interviews etc (Baker, 2000).
On the other hand, through the method of secondary data collection the researcher aims at analysing and examining the researches of previous investigators and academic articles based on the particular topic. The nature of such data is secondary which means that they are previously collected by someone other than the researcher of the following investigation. Such data collection method is less costly and time-consuming. Secondary data collection comprises videos, writings, books, academic articles, journals, and websites through which the researcher extracts the relevant information. However, the method that is used for data collection in the following research is primary data collection method. Under this method, close-ended questionnaires were designed and distributed among different employees of SMEs functioning in the UAE. Primary data collection helps research attain the information in a direct manner and thus deliberate it with high authenticity (Kuada, 2012; Bhattacharyya, 2006).
The aim of the following research is to assess the impact of Information Technology Management on organisational Performance. Thus, the researcher has selected closed-ended questionnaires as the appropriate research instrument of this study. Moreover, the questionnaires were designed on Likert-scale technique.
The reliability and validity are significant aspects of a research. Reliability is defined as the relevancy of a research to provide precise results more than one time. It shows the level of consistency in a research and if the research is unable to deliver constant results then it will be considered as a failure. On the other hand, the validity is the degree where an instrument assesses the information that is supposed to assess. It is infrequent that an instrument is completely effective, so validity is usually dignified in degrees. As a procedure, validation encompasses accumulating and examining data to measure the accurateness of an instrument (Thanasegaran, 2009).
This was one of the vital sections of the methodology. Consequently, it was essential to select the appropriate size of data in order to achieve authentic findings and outcomes. The sample size is the number of observations that are incorporated in a research through which the researcher analyse the collected data and interpret the result. It is the sub-set of a population which is studied in the specific research. Thus, in the following research, the sample size is 100 that are the employees working in four different SMEs operating in the UAE. The survey questionnaires will be distributed through emails to these respondents. The sampling technique incorporated to select the respondents was non-probability technique under which the convenient sampling is used in order achieve ease of accessibility in data collection from the employees (Kumar & Phrommathed, 2005).
Data analysis is one of the most significant aspects of the overall research so it is very important for the researcher to utilise appropriate analysis tools in order to achieve highly accurate results that can be concluded easily. It is important to deliberate the results in an appropriate manner so that the research becomes easier to be comprehended by anyone who reads it. So, the research has analysed the following data through the statistical tool of Excel through which effective data has been attained (Flick, 2011).
The researcher has understood the significance of ethical consideration while completing the research. Ethical considerations are the values, standards and guidelines that are required to be reflected in the overall process of the research. These are the right and wrong ethics of research. Thus, in the following research, the researcher has made sure that none of the ethics of research completion is violated. The main issue that the researcher was attentive towards was the plagiarism issues. The researcher made certain to provide original data and not copy someone else’s work and present it as their own (Bhattacharyya, 2006). Moreover, the respondents were provided with free consent to participate in the survey and were given the assurance that their confidentiality will not be accessed for any other purpose apart from the procedure of the following research. Moreover, the research also assured these respondents that their responses will be provided anonymously. Finally, the researcher aimed at evaluating the research without harming or violating anyone in any way either mentally or physically (Maruster, 2013).
Methodology chapter helped the researcher in summarising the overall process involved in the collection, analysis and selection of appropriate methods and approaches. To achieve the aim of the following research of assessing the impact of the impact of Information Technology Management on Organizational Performance the researcher selected quantitative research methodology along with positivism research philosophy. Moreover, under the deductive approach hypothesis were generated and the collection of the data was based on primary method. For this purpose, close-ended questionnaires were designed and distributed among 100 employees of 4 SMEs working in UAE. The selection of the respondents was based on the convenience based sampling technique and the analysis of the results are completed through statistical tools mainly SPSS.
This chapter is aimed at providing analysis on the data that has been gathered through the surveys through using closed-ended questionnaire. The interpretation and the discussion of the data that has been collected is provided in this chapter.
From the above figure, it is depicted that the 40 % of the participants are on the view that they information technology management provides smart ways for the employees to work in an organisation. 30% of the participants were found agreed on the above statement. 20% participants were neutral on the above matter whereas 6% and 4% disagreed and strongly disagreed with the said statement. The table, on the other hand, is indicating that there is a small difference between standard deviation and the mean. The smaller difference between the standard deviation and mean is depicting that the data is not dispersed and is reliable since the mean is depicting the information technology management and its effectiveness on the smart working of employees.
The above figure is depicting that 30% of the participants responded neutrally when they were inquired about the IT usage and its resultant effect on the management style and structure of the SMEs. 10 % of the participants strongly agreed and agreed with the view that the management style and structure is not affected by the usage of IT. However, the remaining significant percentage of participants that is 20% and 30% respectively disagreed and strongly disagreed that the usage of IT does not affect the management style and structure of SMEs. It means that majority of the participants are on the view that management style and the structure of the SMEs organisations operating in UAE are largely affected by the usage of IT. The statistics in the above table is representing that there is a vast difference between the standard deviation and the mean. The vast difference between standard deviation and mean is representing that the data is unreliable which means that the statement that IT usage does not significantly affect the structure and management style in the SMEs in UAE.
From the above graph, it is depicted that 10% of the employees, that is a minimal amount, agreed and strongly agreed that the SMEs of UAE is not significantly influenced by the IT applications. 20% of the participants provided neutral response whereas 40 % and 20%, a significant majority of the participants disagreed and strongly disagreed with the statement which means that a significant majority of participants are on the view that information technology and information technology management have a significant influence on the SMEs organisations of UAE. The above figure is depicting that there exists a significant distance between standard deviation and the mean. The significant distance between the standard deviation and mean is highlighting that the data is dispersed and therefore it is not reliable
The above graph is indicating that, when the participants were inquired by the linkage between technological sophistication and the performance, 15% and 10% of the participants agreed and strongly agreed that there is no linkage between the performance and the technological sophistication. 30% and 35% of the participants disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively which means that significant majority is on the view that technological sophistication and performance has a significant link. 10% of the participants were on the neutral opinion when they were inquired about the technological sophistication and its linkage with the performance. The above table is depicting that there is the minimum difference between the mean and standard deviation which means that the data is not discreet and is, therefore, reliable.
When the participants were inquired about the impact on the information technological management on the decision making, 10 % of the participants provided a neutral response. 10% of the participants were of the opinion that disagreed and strongly disagreed with the statement that decision making is largely impacted by the information technology management. 40% and 30 % of the participants strongly agreed and agreed that information technology management enhances the decision-making process within the SMEs of UAE. As per the above table, the standard deviation is close to zero which means that the standard deviation is near to the mean which is indicating the favourable situation. It means that the data in this scenario is reliable as it is also supported by the responses of the participants from the pie chart.
The above figure is depicting the responses about the information technology management and its role in making the functions of SMEs in UAE more sophisticated. As per the above figure, it is depicted that 20 percent of the participants provided a neutral response on the information technology management and the sophistication of the function due to the effective management of information technology. The above graph is depicting that there lies a huge difference between mean and standard deviation which suggests that the data the data is discrete and hence it is not reliable. It means that there might be cases where the information technology management has made the functions more sophisticated but in a number of cases the situation might not be the same as depicted in the above statement.
The above figure is depicting the response of the participants on the information technology management and its positive role SMEs of UAE in combating the global challenges. As per the above figure, it is depicted that 20% of the participants provided a neutral response on the information technology management and its role in SMEs in combating the challenges. 25% and 35% of the participants agreed and strongly agreed respectively that the information technology management has helped in the SMEs of UAE in combating the global challenges. However, a few participants provided negative response and disagreed and strongly disagreed that the information technology has any role in helping the SMEs in combating with the global challenges. The data in the above table is depicting huge fluctuation between the standard deviation and the mean. The data in this scenario is discrete and showing that the data cannot be relied upon. The difference between the responses of the pie chart and the table is depicting that though information technology management has helped a few SMEs within UAE in combating the challenges but in case of large number of SMEs, the situation might not be the same which might be due to a number of reasons that are holding back the SMEs to explore the full potential of the technology.
The above graph is showing the responses on the role of the infrastructure in providing support for the effective management of information technology in the SMEs of UAE. The above graph is depicting that 20% of the participants neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. 10%c participants disagreed and strongly disagreed with the statement and were on the view that the infrastructure does not have the major role to play in the effective management of information technology. 30% of the participants agreed and strongly agreed with the statement and they were on the view that infrastructure does provide greater support for the effective management of information technology in UAE. As per the above table, the difference between the mean and standard deviation is depicting difference which is suggesting that the data is not reliable. However, the nearness of standard deviation towards the zero suggests that the difference in the values lies due to the different responses of the participants and therefore, under this scenario, it cannot be said that the results are not favourable. This result is suggesting that the statement is true in most of the situation of SMEs in UAE.
The above figure is depicting that 20% of the participants provided a neutral response when they were asked to respond to the effective information technology management and its contribution towards the higher return on investment in the SMEs in Dubai. 30% of the participants agreed and 30% of the participants strongly agreed that effective information technology management contributes towards the higher return on investment in the SMEs in UAE. 10% of the participants disagreed and strongly disagreed with the view that effective information technology management contributes towards higher return on investment in the SMEs of UAE. The above table is indicating that the standard deviation is close to zero which is depicting that the results are favourable. However, there exists a difference between the value of mean and standard deviation. The difference is due to the different opinions of the individuals about the effective information technology management and its contribution towards the higher return on investment in SMEs of UAE.
From the above figure, it is 20% participants provided a neutral response on the effective information technology management facilitates the effective flow of information within the SMEs of UAE. 40% of the participants agreed and 20% of the participants strongly agreed that effective information technology management facilitates the flow of information within the SMEs. However, 10% of the participants disagreed and strongly disagreed with the statement that effective information technology management facilitates the flow of information within the SMEs of UAE. As per the above table, the difference between the standard deviation and mean is small which is depicting that the data is reliable and favourable. This means that the data is supporting that effective information technology management facilitates the flow of information within SMEs.
The results and the literature review indicate that the information technology management can bring many advantages to associations, and can help the SMEs in UAE to expand its operation through increasing efficiency and effectiveness. From the literature, it has been observed that information technology management have attempted to demonstrate an immediate effect of IT on the operations of the business (Akhavan, et al., 2009). The outcomes of the data analysis also depicted that information technology management provides value added advantage to the business and helps the business in gaining competitive advantage in the market. From the literature review, it is evident that few experts contended that IT is fundamental in preparing and circulating important information within the organisation and in order to gain value added advantage from the information technology, it should be combined with authoritative elements in order to add value to the operations. It is affirmed from the literature review that there is a positive connection between IT advancement and execution. Nevertheless, because of the absence of past research and exact confirmation in the SMEs of UAE, especially with respect to the return on investment from integrating the information technology management within the organisation, it is difficult to estimate the exact potential of the information technology management and its impact on SMEs (Al-Qirim, 2008).
The relationship between the information technology management and organisation effectiveness is under-expressed in literature expressed in its invalid shape. However, despite that, IT is one of the systems that can be utilised to increase classified information preparing capacities within the organisations (Kuo & Kuo, 2010; Akhavan, et al., 2009). Utilisation of cutting edge IT prompts more accessible information and therefore prompts more information availability to bolster choice makings within in SMEs of UAE. Likewise, it can be said that specific accentuation on IT can be utilised as methods by which associations decrease vulnerability. In view of the Literature, as discussed in chapter 2, it is affirmed that IT modernity directly affects the measure of outside and inside information exchange. Information technology management does not only help in effective decision making, but it also plays a vital role in making the system efficient and effective (Al-Qirim, 2008; Elbeltagi, et al., 2013).
Nonetheless, information technology management also facilitates in keeping the financial data up to date and provides support for effective cost bookkeeping, planning, generation arranging and control, spending fluctuations and the records of cash flow through introducing the sophisticated soft wares like oracle and Peachtree for managing data properly. Information technology management also facilitates in managing effectively the HR process such as staff management, venture management, performance evaluation, appropriate compensation and benefit etc. In the view of the literature discussed, it is finding demonstrated that the greater part of the organisation in the current era is dependent upon the technology and therefore effective technology management plays vital part in keeping the entire system efficient and up to date in order enable the system to meet the ever changing requirement of the organisation (Soudani, 2012; Akhavan, et al., 2009)
Further, from the literature review; it is depicted that the IT systems can also be used to quantify the administrative measurement of IT modernity of the organisations within SMEs. Effective information technology management furthermore, helps in the knowledge management within the organisation. Knowledge management had a noteworthy relationship in creating effective information administration. From the literature review, it is inferred that through the technology, the knowledge management within the organisation has enhanced, and through information technology management the cost of mixed media innovation is lowered, which facilitates in rearranging the procedure of access to data and the data exchange (Houy, et al., 2010; Al-Ansari, et al., 2013). Moreover, from the literature review, it is demonstrated that there is a critical connection between data innovation and information technology management. The data innovation gifts learning administration two noteworthy capacities: the capaSMEsto reveal information and the capaSMEsto make quick associations among learning channels (Shah Alam, et al., 2011; Aboelmaged, 2014).
The literature review has also elaborated that information technology management has added to learning era, which contributes towards enhancing the associations' execution. Also, there is a solid connection between information administration practices and association's execution. Information technologies are accessible to all organisations, yet the advantages and capacities required realising changes, in both authoritative plan and in different components, strict in the organisations for taking the equal advantages. Thus lays the wellspring of the contrasts in firms' prosperity or disappointment when they integrated new technologies. In this regard, it can be said that information technology alone does not give supportable upper hands: its utilization alongside corresponding human and authoritative assets, for example, an adaptable culture, the coordination of IT and the company's methodology, is the thing that permits firms to gain competitive advantage in the market (Kuo & Kuo, 2010).
For the literature review, it is depicted that different experts talk about the need to locate a nearby fit between the administration of IT and reciprocal assets, for example, methodology, the hierarchical structure, HR, and hierarchical assets. Thus it becomes really important to discuss how IT and hierarchical plan decidedly can influence firm efficiency. From the results, it is depicted that the gross minimal benefit related to IT management exceeds its peripheral cost. A different view of the participants supported that It management provides value added advantage to the organisations (Chen & Huang, 2012; Kuo & Kuo, 2010). The results have also established positive relationship amongst information technology management and its impact in different divisions within organisations, along with increasing returns, thus demonstrating that information technology management can provide a number of benefit to the organisation (Chen & Huang, 2012; Aboelmaged, 2014).
However, it is to be noted that essentially putting resources into IT management does not create changes in execution but it is the concurrent nearness of correlative assets and the utilisation of these in close arrangement with these advances that can help the organisation in gaining competitive advantage. Furthermore, from the results, it is also depicted that the information technology management provides the employees smart and efficient ways to work in the organisations. However, in order to gain the benefit from the information technology, the organisation structure is of vital significance. Furthermore, effective information technology management contributes towards making the functions and operations more sophisticated, classified and standardised and help the organisations to promote smart and efficient working (Aboelmaged, 2014; Al-Qirim, 2008).
This chapter provided the analysis on the data that is represented by the graph and the table. This chapter provided the detailed analysis of the descriptive statistics along with the discussion based on the literature review and the result.
This research study was aimed to provide the in-depth analysis on the impact of information technology management on the performance of organisation especially within the SMEs of UAE. The literature of the study was designed keeping in view the connection between the performance and the IT management within the organisations specifically SMEs. The information technology management has become critical for the SMEs. The integration of information technology has enhanced a number of operations in SMEs such as automatic bookkeeping; proliferation into other authoritative units; and improvement toward microcomputer innovation and a huge number of applications that provides supportive functions to SMEs. It ought to be stressed that the end-all strategy had a positive effect. The utilisation of innovation was plainly gone for enhancing the SMEs execution and was planned to prompt a diminishment of the workforce. Every one of the performers in the solid activity framework acknowledged the new innovations extremely well and didn't really considered working without the current data frameworks
The question that how has the appropriation of these advances impacted the SMEs execution? This is hard to decide since the SMEs have not built up procedures for methodically assessing the data frameworks. In scrutinising each gathering of on-screen characters about the advantages acknowledged from the data frameworks, it is found that these advantages could be summed up as faster get to a bigger amount of data of better quality. The utilisation of innovation is a fundamental, yet not adequate, condition for guaranteeing business development. Two main considerations may clarify this absence of the combination of frameworks. The first is the disarray with respect to the administration of the procedure for embracing frameworks. At the present time, the frameworks office accepts accountability for the handle as a matter of course, while staying alerted that it is not best suited for this part. The second component is that the execution stage is fragmented, or even overlooked, particularly in respect such that the frameworks have on the association on HR. It has been observed that "however, high the nature of the equipment or the product, if the worker does not utilise it, or if the authoritative setting does not empower it, or if the work is not acclimated to exploit the potential outcomes, the outcome will be a failure.
The work has not been redesigned as far as the utilisation of new innovations, yet this is the territory in which critical profitability additions can be figured it out. Little place has been given to the clients/administrators, who obviously are regularly best ready to misuse the new advancements. The clients/administrators without a doubt say that they can offer exhortation to enhance how the frameworks are utilised. They additionally accentuate that their many remarks on the lacking working of data frameworks were not considered. Preparing has likewise been exceptionally lacking. No technique for the expert improvement of the metropolitan staff was embraced, and the originators have not attempted to give the fundamental components of preparing that the workers require all together working the frameworks capable. The frameworks office can guarantee the incorporation of the innovation all alone. Inside the solid activity framework, the flow must be with the end goal that those included will utilise a community oriented process. The SMEs must look to achieve another balance where each gathering of performing artists has its place in the outline, operation and advancement of the data frameworks. To touch base at this new adjust, the chiefs must show authority, in specific by plainly setting up the desires, parts also, duties of every on-screen character.
The SMEs must focus on assuming the responsibility for the association's data systems.11 It is dependent upon them to determine the targets and introductions of the frameworks administration handle. From there on, they should look after control over requirements evaluation, plan, usage, operation, what's more, assessment of the data frameworks. Notwithstanding, to touch base at that stage, they should wind up noticeably mindful that they are in the best position to complete the incorporation of the frameworks. They should build up their specialised information. They don't need to end up experts; some information of authoritative data frameworks and their potential will suffice. Ideally, SMEs must quit considering that computerization ventures can in them change the association. Since the administrators are assuming control over the data frameworks, their association with the frameworks office must be re-imagined.
A few years back, the data innovation authority was the master and chief. Today, with microcomputer innovation, a customer/provider relationship must be made between the frameworks office also, alternate divisions. Through administration contracts, such a union makes it conceivable to oversee data frameworks on the premise of association as opposed to through an exchange of obligations, as is presently the case. It is totally vital, nonetheless, that any administration contract includes a framework appraisal stage. This appraisal will permit the gatherings to characterise together the formal procedure and the exact markers that will empower them to decide the degree to which the goals have been come to. These markers incorporate how much the framework is utilised, its combination into the office, and its commitment to enhancing the SMEs execution.
The outcomes uncover that effective IT management is related to increased efficient and performance within the SMEs. The outcome additionally uncovers that effective IT management is related to enhanced operations and sophisticated functions. Clarification of the outcomes is that an associations' IT management capability, expands the management capabilities of the company in terms of managing the human resource, checking its techniques, managing the financial data and the resources with the organisation. The research study also concluded that utilisation of cutting edge IT prompts more accessible and even more immediately enhanced information, including outside information, inward information, and beforehand experienced information, and consequently prompts expanded information availability.
The research study, in the beginning, undertook subjective perspective through utilising review of past literature to gauge the effectiveness of information technology management within the organisations. The research concluded that the organisations can gain significant advantage from the effective technology management. This research study concluded that, with a specific end goal to expand the advantages of IT, it is important to adjust different components. As per the research study, the organisational structure plays an important role in the effectiveness of information technology management. However, there can be a number of issues that can restrict the research from taking full advantage of the effective information technology management.
The need to increment and enhance instruction and attitudes of specialists to ensure that firms can take the full preferred standpoint of the IT they have executed is one of the inquiries that open the firms ought to consider, given that strategies assume a key part in guaranteeing that the potential of the IT has been fully explored. This research study further pointed out that the effective information technology management can enhance the performance of the organisation. For the purpose of this research study, primary data collection approach was adopted. Data for the purpose of this research study was collected through the closed-ended questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the results.
The following are the recommendations for SMEs to Enhance Information Technology Management:
Attitudes are a fundamental essential for the effective working of the organisation. Skills are the most imperative single determinant" of organisational effectiveness. The real strength of an organisation lies in the skills and competency set of its employees. There is the board proof of HR specialists picking speculation goals for ease work preferences. It is conceivable to upgrade assertiveness for brief periods by depending on untalented work. Nonetheless, this is not a long haul technique and nations "need to raise ability levels to develop in open, aggressive markets. In order to enhance the intensity and effectiveness of working, organisations are required to make efforts to develop its employees. There is no other approach to keep and enhance the skills. SMEs in UAE are in need to enhance their human capital base in the order from them to develop and succeed. The success of any organisation is largely dependent upon the preferred standpoint of ease work towards more talented and adaptable procedures and working strategies. The capability of SMEs of individuals to do this can decide their ability to climb the technology stepping stool and to participate actively in the rising worldwide economy. Nonetheless, in many SMEs where fundamental training and education levels are low, it is hard to match the scope and specialised substance in order for taking advantage of the technology. There is basic approach decision between building up expert foundations offering specialised preparing and amplifying the scope of fundamental instruction to a greater amount of the employees. SMEs, therefore, should focus on developing the skills of its workers in order to take full advantage of the information technology and an effective information technology management.
As per the "mechanical split" hypothesis, advancement is fundamental to exchange and aggressiveness, as SMEs that enhance pick up leverage and fare to SMEs which are slacking innovatively in specific items and advances. The significance of advancement as a rule, and innovative work (R&D) specifically, to develop, advancing and extending neighbourhood abilities has been accentuated more than once. Research and development give essential points of interest in empowering figuring out, learning-by-doing and more specific know-how of the technical issues, and additionally innovations that are adjusted to nearby needs and conditions. Research and development are critical in light of the fact that even techy and large organisations need to attempt R&D to absorb, adjust and enhance new technologies to in order to satisfy their changing requirements. Nonappearance of R&D and the absence of R&D capaSMEscan oblige up evaluating in creating SMEs looking to go into complex advances; this proposes a critical "tolerant" or encouraging part for Research and development. Integration of Research and development is one of the key components that separate large organisations from SMEs. A number of SMEs spend just insignificant sums on formal research and development. SMEs moreover, don't allocate much time for the research and development. It is anything but difficult to perceive any reason why: when assets are constrained, research and development speaks to a long haul, possibly unsafe speculation with long haul, questionable and incompletely concealed returns. Moreover, it is not quite recently added up to Research and development use that matters: the procedure that is used in undertaking the examination is vital. SMEs therefore should increase their focus on the research and development in order to take full advantage of the information technology management. "Externalised" technology transfer
Another key channel for technology exchange is permitting and a safe distance buys of know-how of licenses, patents and copyrights. Permitting is a consent to exchange the selective rights to utilise technology from the trendsetter to the licensee in return for instalments of eminence and permit expenses. For incorporating technology and furthermore getting benefit from it, SMEs should have the know-how, mark names and establishments. The development of the administration part is probably going to help an SMEs innovative improvement since administration exercises are commonly information-escalated and regularly require utilisation of information and correspondence advances.
The framework is a basic essential for both individual firms' for effectively managing the information technology. The meaning of the technology step system investigates a constricted meaning of technical foundation in the SMEs. The structure of the organisation provides greater support for the organisations to incorporate technologies in its operations. Therefore, for the SMEs for effective information technology management, the structure should be formed such that it supports the integration of technology in order to enhance the overall performance of the firms.
The sampling approach adopted in this study has limited the potential of the study to apply it to the larger population. This review has furthermore, covered only four firms thus making it impossible to generalise the results on the entire SMEs market of UAE. Furthermore, due consideration has not been given to the different industries and the relevant effects of information technology management on the specific industries.
Future research could utilise a more target approach by getting some information about the accessibility of information on particular techniques through which information technology can be effectively managed. This research study was focused on a small number of participants thus providing a limited view of the SMEs market of UAE. Future research could utilise a more subjective approach, for example, the contextual analysis or a longitudinal review. The research can also take into account
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